Riviste scientifiche

Small dogs urinate higher up lamp posts to make themselves seem bigger

New Scientist - Ve, 03/08/2018 - 13:49
It seems when smaller dogs urinate on objects they might be using this opportunity to deceive, by making it look like their mark was left by a bigger dog

Modified mosquitoes wipe out whole city’s dengue for the first time

New Scientist - Ve, 03/08/2018 - 12:39
Anti-dengue mosquitoes have eliminated the virus from Townsville, Australia - the first successful large-scale use of modified mosquitoes to wipe out disease

Feedback: Firefighters called in to deal with hot chips in Texas

New Scientist - Ve, 03/08/2018 - 12:00
Does anyone have some cool ranch dip? Plus: boxes that make the contents lighter, midnight sun in the UK, the original motion picture, and more

[Seminar] Acute myeloid leukaemia

The Lancet - Ve, 03/08/2018 - 00:30
For several decades, few substantial therapeutic advances have been made for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. However, since 2017 unprecedented growth has been seen in the number of drugs available for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia, with several new drugs receiving regulatory approval. In addition to advancing our therapeutic armamentarium, an increased understanding of the biology and genomic architecture of acute myeloid leukaemia has led to refined risk assessment of this disease, with consensus risk stratification guidelines now incorporating a growing number of recurrent molecular aberrations that aid in the selection of risk-adapted management strategies.

[Seminar] Autism spectrum disorder

The Lancet - Ve, 03/08/2018 - 00:30
Autism spectrum disorder is a term used to describe a constellation of early-appearing social communication deficits and repetitive sensory–motor behaviours associated with a strong genetic component as well as other causes. The outlook for many individuals with autism spectrum disorder today is brighter than it was 50 years ago; more people with the condition are able to speak, read, and live in the community rather than in institutions, and some will be largely free from symptoms of the disorder by adulthood.

A collaborative translational research framework for evaluating and implementing the appropriate use of human genome sequencing to improve health

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 23:00

by Muin J. Khoury, W. Gregory Feero, David A. Chambers, Lawrence E. Brody, Nazneen Aziz, Robert C. Green, A. Cecile J.W. Janssens, Michael F. Murray, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Joni L. Rutter, Sheri D. Schully, Deborah M. Winn, George A. Mensah

In a Policy Forum, Muin Khoury and colleagues discuss research on the clinical application of genome sequencing data.

Did ancient Mayan civilisation collapse because of a sudden drought?

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 21:00
We have the best evidence yet that there was a prolonged drought at the time of the demise of the classic Mayan civilisation - and could explain why it collapsed

Robot laws: 5 new rules that could save human lives (at least on TV)

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 18:00
From Battlestar Galactica to The Terminator, on-screen robots have never been above a little rule-breaking. Could our new laws of robotics keep them in line?

How many people did Hurricane Maria really kill in Puerto Rico?

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 18:00
The official death toll for Hurricane Maria, which devastated Puerto Rico, is 64 people. A new analysis of death records finds that 1139 excess deaths occurred in the months after the storm

Mystery of Welsh bodies buried at Stonehenge as first stones arrived

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 17:00
A new analysis of the cremated remains at Stonehenge suggest that some of the bodies buried there came from hundreds of kilometres away in Wales

Dark matter might be harder to detect because it’s not from our galaxy

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 14:43
Two thirds of the dark matter in the area near the sun was sucked up when the Milky Way devoured another galaxy, and that might make it harder for us to detect

New Scientist Live: are we about to uncover the dark universe?

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 14:37
Astrophysicists are coming to London this September to describe how we might be about to crack the greatest mysteries of the universe - dark matter and dark energy

Robot laws: Why we need a code of conduct for AI – and fast

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 14:00
From election-rigging bots to potentially lethal autonomous cars, artificial intelligence is straining legal boundaries. Here's what we need to keep it in check

Google Glass app uses emojis to help children with autism read faces

New Scientist - Gi, 02/08/2018 - 12:00
Many children with autism find it hard to decipher other people’s facial expressions. An interactive system that uses Google Glass may help

Metabolic and lifestyle risk factors for acute pancreatitis in Chinese adults: A prospective cohort study of 0.5 million people

PLoS Medicine - Me, 01/08/2018 - 23:00

by Yuanjie Pang, Christiana Kartsonaki, Iain Turnbull, Yu Guo, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Yiping Chen, Iona Y. Millwood, Fiona Bragg, Weiwei Gong, Qinai Xu, Quan Kang, Junshi Chen, Liming Li, Michael V. Holmes, Zhengming Chen

Background

Little prospective evidence exists about risk factors and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in China. We examined the associations of certain metabolic and lifestyle factors with risk of acute pancreatitis in Chinese adults.

Methods and findings

The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recruited 512,891 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 5 urban and 5 rural areas between 25 June 2004 and 15 July 2008. During 9.2 years of follow-up (to 1 January 2015), 1,079 cases of acute pancreatitis were recorded. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for acute pancreatitis associated with various metabolic and lifestyle factors among all or male (for smoking and alcohol drinking) participants. Overall, the mean waist circumference (WC) was 82.1 cm (SD 9.8) cm in men and 79.0 cm (SD 9.5) cm in women, 6% had diabetes, and 6% had gallbladder disease at baseline. WC was positively associated with risk of acute pancreatitis, with an adjusted HR of 1.35 (95% CI 1.27–1.43; p < 0.001) per 1-SD-higher WC. Individuals with diabetes or gallbladder disease had HRs of 1.34 (1.07–1.69; p = 0.01) and 2.42 (2.03–2.88; p < 0.001), respectively. Physical activity was inversely associated with risk of acute pancreatitis, with each 4 metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per day (MET-h/day) higher physical activity associated with an adjusted HR of 0.95 (0.91–0.99; p = 0.03). Compared with those without any metabolic risk factors (i.e., obesity, diabetes, gallbladder disease, and physical inactivity), the HRs of acute pancreatitis for those with 1, 2, or ≥3 risk factors were 1.61 (1.47–1.76), 2.36 (2.01–2.78), and 3.41 (2.46–4.72), respectively (p < 0.001). Among men, heavy alcohol drinkers (≥420 g/week) had an HR of 1.52 (1.11–2.09; p = 0.04, compared with abstainers), and current regular smokers had an HR of 1.45 (1.28–1.64; p = 0.02, compared with never smokers). Following a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, there were higher risks of pancreatic cancer (HR = 8.26 [3.42–19.98]; p < 0.001; 13 pancreatic cancer cases) and death (1.53 [1.17–2.01]; p = 0.002; 89 deaths). Other diseases of the pancreas had similar risk factor profiles and prognosis to acute pancreatitis. The main study limitations are ascertainment of pancreatitis using hospital records and residual confounding.

Conclusions

In this relatively lean Chinese population, several modifiable metabolic and lifestyle factors were associated with higher risks of acute pancreatitis, and individuals with acute pancreatitis had higher risks of pancreatic cancer and death.

Bio-engineered lungs are the first successful organs made in the lab

New Scientist - Me, 01/08/2018 - 21:00
Pigs have been able to breathe using lungs made in the lab. This is the most successful complex organ to be bioengineered yet – but there’s one big step left

Newly-discovered type of lung cell has central role in cystic fibrosis

New Scientist - Me, 01/08/2018 - 20:00
A new type of lung cell is rare in our bodies, but is the main place where the gene involved in the common hereditary condition cystic fibrosis is active

Donald Trump may finally appoint a science adviser after 18 month wait

New Scientist - Me, 01/08/2018 - 18:21
Kelvin Droegemeier, a weather researcher, has been nominated to be the director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

AI camera to help spot the best grapes for making pesticide-free wine

New Scientist - Me, 01/08/2018 - 16:52
A combination of AI and photography is helping wine makers keep their grapes free of disease, by spotting the grapes that are most resistant to rot

One drink a day might be enough to stop dementia by flushing the brain

New Scientist - Me, 01/08/2018 - 16:50
Light drinking helps prevent dementia, and now we may know why: it revs up the brain’s waste disposal system
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