Riviste scientifiche

It has been a good/bad week for women in physics

New Scientist - Ma, 02/10/2018 - 18:50
At last, a third Nobel, but it has been a decidedly mixed week for female physicists

Facebook’s AI is writing short stories and they actually make sense

New Scientist - Ma, 02/10/2018 - 17:20
Making machines that write stories is incredibly hard. But a new approach from Facebook’s AI team has produced some surprisingly good tales

Cargo ships through the Arctic may cool the region with pollution

New Scientist - Ma, 02/10/2018 - 16:26
Sending more cargo ships through the Arctic as the sea ice retreats might actually reduce the warming in the region, but it would also threaten human health

Baby giraffes with small and oval markings are most likely to die

New Scientist - Ma, 02/10/2018 - 13:00
Masai giraffes born with large or round spots may find it easier to hide from predators than giraffes with small or elliptical spots

Donna Strickland is the third woman ever to win a physics Nobel Prize

New Scientist - Ma, 02/10/2018 - 12:17
The winner of the Nobel Prize in physics includes a woman for the first time in 55 years, going to Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland

High-risk human papillomavirus status and prognosis in invasive cervical cancer: A nationwide cohort study

PLoS Medicine - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 23:00

by Jiayao Lei, Alexander Ploner, Camilla Lagheden, Carina Eklund, Sara Nordqvist Kleppe, Bengt Andrae, K. Miriam Elfström, Joakim Dillner, Pär Sparén, Karin Sundström

Background

High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection is established as the major cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). However, whether hrHPV status in the tumor is associated with subsequent prognosis of ICC is controversial. We aim to evaluate the association between tumor hrHPV status and ICC prognosis using national registers and comprehensive human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping.

Methods and findings

In this nationwide population-based cohort study, we identified all ICC diagnosed in Sweden during the years 2002–2011 (4,254 confirmed cases), requested all archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks, and performed HPV genotyping. Twenty out of 25 pathology biobanks agreed to the study, yielding a total of 2,845 confirmed cases with valid HPV results. Cases were prospectively followed up from date of cancer diagnosis to 31 December 2015, migration from Sweden, or death, whichever occurred first. The main exposure was tumor hrHPV status classified as hrHPV-positive and hrHPV-negative. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality by 31 December 2015. Five-year relative survival ratios (RSRs) were calculated, and excess hazard ratios (EHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression, adjusting for education, time since cancer diagnosis, and clinical factors including age at cancer diagnosis and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage. Of the 2,845 included cases, hrHPV was detected in 2,293 (80.6%), and we observed 1,131 (39.8%) deaths during an average of 6.2 years follow-up. The majority of ICC cases were diagnosed at age 30–59 years (57.5%) and classified as stage IB (40.7%). hrHPV positivity was significantly associated with screen-detected tumors, young age, high education level, and early stage at diagnosis (p < 0.001). The 5-year RSR compared to the general female population was 0.74 (95% CI 0.72–0.76) for hrHPV-positive cases and 0.54 (95% CI 0.50–0.59) for hrHPV-negative cases, yielding a crude EHR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.38–0.52) and an adjusted EHR of 0.61 (95% CI 0.52–0.71). Risk of all-cause mortality as measured by EHR was consistently and statistically significantly lower for cases with hrHPV-positive tumors for each age group above 29 years and each FIGO stage above IA. The difference in prognosis by hrHPV status was highly robust, regardless of the clinical, histological, and educational characteristics of the cases. The main limitation was that, except for education, we were not able to adjust for lifestyle factors or other unmeasured confounders.

Conclusions

In this study, women with hrHPV-positive cervical tumors had a substantially better prognosis than women with hrHPV-negative tumors. hrHPV appears to be a biomarker for better prognosis in cervical cancer independent of age, FIGO stage, and histological type, extending information from already established prognostic factors. The underlying biological mechanisms relating lack of detectable tumor hrHPV to considerably worse prognosis are not known and should be further investigated.

Fluke experiment hints deep brain stimulation really treats depression

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 17:00
People with depression treated with deep brain stimulation suffered unexpected relapses when the batteries went flat, hinting the treatment isn’t just a placebo

Domesticating tomatoes took millennia – we can now redo it in 3 years

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 17:00
With CRISPR gene editing technology we can now rapidly domesticate wild plants to create tasty and healthy food

It is 2018, so why are we still debating whether women can do physics?

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 15:28
A talk by a physicist at CERN suggesting that women aren’t as good as men at physics has sparked outrage. I was there, and people are right to be offended, says Jess Wade

Massive Facebook data breach left 50 million accounts exposed

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 12:54
Facebook has suffered the biggest hack in its history. It left the personal details of 50 million accounts exposed, including Mark Zuckerberg's

Physicist sparks gender row after claiming women are worse at physics

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 12:28
Physicist Alessandro Strumia gave a talk at CERN, home of the Large Hadron Collider, claiming that women are inferior to men when it comes to physics research

Thought police: Spotting cyber criminals before they break the law

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 12:00
Hackers regularly purchase malware online for carrying out cyber-attacks, but a new system could automatically spot those considering doing so before they do it

Cancer immune therapy recognised with Nobel Prize for medicine

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 12:00
The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine has been awarded to James Allison and Tasuku Honjo for discovering how cancer can be treated by targeting the immune system

Over 800 people have died after a massive tsunami hit Indonesia

New Scientist - Lu, 01/10/2018 - 11:22
A massive earthquake and tsunami has hit the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Over 800 people have died and another 50,000 people have been displaced

First Man: Ryan Gosling and Damien Chazelle on faking the moon landing

New Scientist - Do, 30/09/2018 - 12:13
We talk to the star and director of First Man, the new film about the Apollo 11 mission, and ask what it was like getting into the head of the famously enigmatic Neil Armstrong

[Editorial] The case for investing in WHO

The Lancet - Sa, 29/09/2018 - 00:00
“This is not about only investing in an institution, it's about investing in people, it's about investing in a healthier, safer, fairer world”, said Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus at the launch of WHO's first ever investment case. These emphatic words set the tone for an ambitious goal: to make the case for the investment needed to deliver WHO's 5-year strategic plan, approved earlier this year—the 13th General Programme of Work, 2019–2023 (GPW13). That WHO is articulating its investment case is unprecedented and welcome.

[Editorial] Standing by France's social contract: Macron's health reform

The Lancet - Sa, 29/09/2018 - 00:00
On a background of tense negotiations for a workable Brexit deal, President Emmanuel Macron announced a health reform for France, which stands health as a pillar for his 21st century welfare state. Macron's “health transformation strategy” aims to be the most ambitious reform in 60 years, a “change in paradigm” that puts the patient at the centre of care and focuses on better prevention, care for non-communicable diseases, and translational care.

[Editorial] Age-related macular degeneration: treatment at what cost?

The Lancet - Sa, 29/09/2018 - 00:00
An estimated 8·4 million people worldwide have moderate to severe vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A Seminar by Paul Mitchell and colleagues in today's Lancet describes the latest developments in this devastating condition. The first symptoms of visual distortion or scotoma in one eye might indicate early-phase disease. Later stage AMD is classed as either wet, characterised by choroidal neovascularisation, or dry, characterised by atrophy. Beyond slowing disease progression with micronutrient supplementation, atrophic AMD has no treatment.

[Comment] Offline: It's time to hold the private sector accountable

The Lancet - Sa, 29/09/2018 - 00:00
Once a central focus of global development goals, the field of women's, children's, and adolescents' health has now been pushed to the margins of international concern. Maternal and child health advocates have been victims of their own success. Steep declines in under-5 mortality and steady progress in reducing maternal mortality have suggested the job is done. While advances in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health should be celebrated, this week's report by the Independent Accountability Panel for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health (IAP) proves that such complacency is a grave mistake.

[World Report] Brexit, health care, and life sciences: plan for the worst

The Lancet - Sa, 29/09/2018 - 00:00
Negotiations continue between the UK and the EU27 for Brexit plans. Deal or no deal, leaders in health care, pharmaceutical, and life sciences are covering all bases. Becky McCall reports.
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