Riviste scientifiche

China’s dreadful air pollution seems to have got a bit better

New Scientist - Ma, 07/11/2017 - 01:01
While China’s capital Beijing is once again suffering a severe smog, a new study suggests that nationally pollution has fallen 21 per cent over two years

Blood cells in chronic fatigue syndrome are drained of energy

New Scientist - Lu, 06/11/2017 - 18:00
Cells from people with chronic fatigue syndrome fail to meet even modest energy demands, adding to evidence that the disease is physiological, not psychological

Enceladus’s hot, gritty core may cook up ingredients for life

New Scientist - Lu, 06/11/2017 - 17:00
Saturn’s moon Enceladus seems to have a sandy core that warms water passing between the grains. This heating could help create conditions that are right for life

Dinosaur mass-extinction let mammals come out in the day

New Scientist - Lu, 06/11/2017 - 17:00
The extinction of the dinosaurs allowed our distant mammalian ancestors to start foraging during the day for the first time – and shaped our early evolution

Why Hawking’s PhD thesis is now an internet-breaking inspiration

New Scientist - Lu, 06/11/2017 - 16:00
Millions rushed to freely access Stephen Hawking's early musings when they went online. More of the same would help ignite young minds everywhere, says Geraint Lewis

Is modern life making today’s teenagers more depressed?

New Scientist - Lu, 06/11/2017 - 12:30
The media is full of stories about a teenage mental health crisis, but the reality is more complex. The real problem is we don't do enough to help those who need it

[Editorial] Improving mental health in the workplace

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
In 1700, Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini penned De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers), the first medical text to describe the ways environmental conditions or hazards associated with various livelihoods could present risks for health. Famously, Ramazzini is cited for encouraging physicians to extend the Hippocratic inquiry of patients to include: “What is your occupation?” Although workers' experiences in the modern world are very different from those in the 17th century, occupational medicine is built on the same fundamental ideals—preventing and treating job-related injury and illness and maintaining health in the workplace.

[Editorial] The opioid crisis in the USA: a public health emergency

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
On Oct 26, President Donald Trump called for the ongoing opioid epidemic to be declared a nationwide public-health emergency. Despite this grandiose call to action, the President fell short of allocating increased federal funding to fight the crisis.

[Editorial] Counting down to climate change

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
Climate change is commonly discussed in the context of its future impact, but the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change by Nick Watts and colleagues, published on Oct 30, exposes the urgency for a response as environmental changes cause damaging effects on health worldwide now. The comprehensive Review describes the first results of a global initiative, which will annually report on indicators of climate change and its effects on health. One alarming finding is how rising temperatures have influenced the transmission of infectious diseases.

[Comment] Indigenous health data and the path to healing

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
The health disadvantages of Indigenous peoples around the world have their roots in colonisation and discrimination and are related to a loss of autonomy over lands and culture. This history has profoundly affected social determinants of health, such as poverty and marginalisation, and contributed to higher rates of communicable and non-communicable diseases in Indigenous people, and life expectancies that are typically 5 years or more lower than in non-Indigenous populations.1,2 Despite persistent health inequities, Indigenous peoples are determining the path to healing their communities.

[Comment] A call for planetary health case studies

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
Planetary health investigates the human health impacts resulting from anthropogenic disruptions in the structure and function of earth's natural systems.1,2 The Planetary Health Alliance and The Lancet invite researchers, educators, and decision makers to submit real-world examples of planetary health in action for further development into case studies. We seek examples that show how human disruptions of natural systems (eg, the climate system, specific ecosystems, not solely unaltered ecosystems) can lead to increased burden of disease and show how a better understanding of these connections can lead to interventions or policies with positive health outcomes.

[Comment] Introducing a history of key trials in The Lancet

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
The introduction of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) in the 1940s constitutes one of the most important experimental advances in modern medicine.1 Through the examination of the efficacy—or otherwise—of drugs and other interventions, RCTs have become the essential scientific arbiter through which treatments are translated from the laboratory to the clinic. Meanwhile, the fundamental methods that underpin the RCT—quantitative thought and the basic principles of randomisation, replication, and unbiased observation—have led to improvements in health care and evidence-based medicine.

[Comment] Offline: Medicine and Marx

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
When President Xi Jinping addressed the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China last month, he spoke of “the scientific truth of Marxism-Leninism”. Marxism (with Chinese characteristics), as President Xi went on to set out, is to be the foundation for a Healthy China. Who would dare today in the West to praise Karl Marx as the saviour of our wellbeing? Marx is long dead. He died physically on March 14, 1883. He died metaphysically in 1991, as the Soviet Union ebbed away into a newly independent Russian state.

[World Report] Health commissioners under the Trump administration

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
City health commissioners look to the federal government for support, but increasingly feel they are working at cross purposes. Ted Alcorn reports.

[Perspectives] Inspiration

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
Recently married Robin (Andrew Garfield) and Diana (Clare Foy) Cavendish lead charmed lives. Robin imports tea from Kenya, and both enjoy the trappings of a 1950s' colonial lifestyle. There are weekend safaris with chums and tea and tennis at the British ambassador's. Then, suddenly, Robin is taken seriously ill with polio. This leaves him tetraplegic and unable even to breathe for himself. It is, as Robin puts it, “a bit of a bugger”. Breathe is a relentlessly cheerful film about how Robin and his family don't accept that tragedy necessarily follows this disaster.

[Perspectives] The CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial: a retrospective

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
Trauma with subsequent death from exsanguination is a global killer. As most deaths from haemorrhage occur in the first few hours after injury, the need to treat patients as soon as possible is imperative. With more than 90% of trauma deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries, it is clear that even a moderate decrease in these high death rates could have an important impact on global health outcomes. This line of thought underpinned the work of the CRASH-2 (Clinical Randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Haemorrhage) randomised controlled trial (RCT), undertaken by the Clinical Trials Unit at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).

[Obituary] Per Fugelli

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
Norwegian general practitioner, professor of social medicine, and icon for his compatriots. Born in Stavanger, Norway, on Dec 7, 1943, he died from cancer on Sept 13, 2017, at his country house in Jæren, Norway, aged 73 years.

[Correspondence] Extending survival for people with hepatitis C using tobacco dependence treatment

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
The availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has led WHO to advocate for the elimination of HCV. However, a 2017 Cochrane review1 suggests that DAA treatment might not improve morbidity and mortality in people living with HCV: trials have shown no benefit on these endpoints, despite a sustained virological response. Stefan Wiktor and John Scott (July 8, p 107)2 state that longer term observational data are needed to assess mortality in people receiving DAA treatment for HCV.

[Correspondence] Diet, atherosclerosis, and helmintic infection in Tsimane

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
In The Lancet, Hillard Kaplan and colleagues (March 17, p 1730)1 noted that more than two-thirds of Tsimane adults suffer from intestinal helminths. Despite such a high inflammatory burden, the authors found a very low prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcium. Preclinical and clinical studies show that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and reductions in inflammatory processes could result in cardiovascular benefits. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and a worse outcome following cardiovascular events.

[Correspondence] Diet, atherosclerosis, and helmintic infection in Tsimane

The Lancet - Sa, 04/11/2017 - 00:00
We examined the Tsimane population at the same time as Hillard Kaplan and colleagues.1,2 We disagree with the authors' description of the Tsimane diet as consisting mostly of non-processed carbohydrates, high amounts of fibre, and very low amounts of simple sugars, as stated in their Article.1
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