Riviste scientifiche

[World Report] From Ireland to Northern Ireland: campaigns for abortion law

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
After Ireland successfully overturned its 8th Amendment using grassroots activism, attention turns to Northern Ireland's abortion laws. Angel Li reports from Dublin.

[Perspectives] When genomics goes digital

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
“Alexa, what's my genetic risk for heart disease and should I be taking a statin?” Virtual assistants can guide us through CPR during emergencies and help manage diabetes, so a query into our personal genome is not far off. Genetic profiling is growing with projections that more than a billion people will have their genomes sequenced by 2025. But outside of prenatal and hereditary cancer screening, cancer treatment, and rare disease diagnosis, genetic data are infrequently used for routine preventive or therapeutic medical plans.

[Perspectives] Teeth and inequality: from past to present

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Teeth matter. Despite being largely preventable, oral diseases are common chronic conditions. Indeed, findings from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study show that untreated caries (decay) is the most prevalent and severe periodontal (gum) disease, the sixth most common disease in the world. From early childhood to old age, oral diseases have a negative impact on quality of life and social functioning. Pain, infection, and difficulties eating and speaking are all common consequences of oral disease.

[Perspectives] Chen Wang: new President of CAMS and PUMC

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Professor Chen Wang, Director of the Centre for Respiratory Medicine at Beijing's China–Japan Friendship Hospital, is the new President of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). Of the several reasons for welcoming the appointment, the most obvious is Wang's expertise in the respiratory diseases that are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in his country and impose a great socioeconomic burden. Moreover, he makes no secret of his enthusiasm for curbing tobacco use, which, while now recognised by the Chinese Government as a key public health issue, remains high.

[Perspectives] Insomnia: a cultural history

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
“I cannot sleep”, Alexander Pushkin wrote in his Lines Written at Night during Insomnia (1830). “Only the monotonous running of the clock/Sounds around me.” Almost all of us, at one time or another, will have experienced the dreary desperation of insomnia. “The anxiety of the sleeping night”, Pushkin continues in his attempt to capture this intolerable dynamic, “The mouse-like scampering of life”. This “scampering” of daily life into the time set aside for rest has been reported for hundreds of years, but it is particularly pertinent to review the cultural history of sleeplessness from the present-day perspective, a world in which many of us take our electronic devices and daily lives to bed with us.

[Perspectives] The hospital reunion

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
“All happy families resemble one another, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way”. Leo Tolstoy's opening line of his masterpiece Anna Karenina came to my mind after seeing the play My Name is Lucy Barton, directed by Richard Eyre at London's Bridge Theatre. Based on Elizabeth Strout's novel, the play is a monologue of a young woman, Lucy Barton, who is in hospital for 9 weeks after complications from an operation to remove her appendix. One day Lucy wakes up and she finds her estranged mother sitting near her bed.

[Obituary] Donald W Seldin

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Pioneer in modern nephrology and the “intellectual father” of the University of Texas Southwest Medical Center. Born in Brooklyn, NY, USA, on Oct 24, 1920, he died of lymphoma on April 25, 2018, aged 97 years.

[Correspondence] A herbal treatment for type 2 diabetes adulterated with undisclosed drugs

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Patients might be drawn to the use of herbal remedies because they are encouraged to think of them as natural remedies, free from adverse effects. We describe a case in which a patient purchased a purported herbal remedy that was found to be adulterated with commonly prescribed drugs.

[Correspondence] Endpoints in diabetes cardiovascular outcome trials

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Standardised Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) queries (SMQs)1 and Customised MedDRA queries (CMQs) are routinely used to identify safety signals in clinical trials, including cardiovascular outcome trials. The three-component major adverse cardiac events (MACE) endpoint, often used to assess cardiovascular safety, includes a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke.2,3 Hospital admission for heart failure is another cardiovascular endpoint of interest.

[Correspondence] Cross-border collaboration and an advanced gastrointestinal endoscopic unit in Gaza

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Knowledge and its production have no national borders. Collaboration between researchers and teams from different countries happens all the time. Such collaborations should be driven by scientific considerations and should not be constrained by administrative issues. Cross-border collaboration involves a degree of interoperability and common approaches based on mutual trust and understanding between organisations that often operate in diverse scientific and legal environments. This Correspondence discusses a successful Israeli–Palestinian collaboration that is benefiting hundreds of people in the Gaza Strip.

[Correspondence] How gaps in policy implementation cause public health malpractice

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
The Lancet Commission1 on pollution and health (Feb 3, p 462) highlights the global health and economic costs of pollution. The acute and chronic lead intoxication seen in Flint, MI, USA, where inadequate monitoring and abatement of lead in the water supply resulted in lead toxicity in more than 27 000 children, was a prime example of such costly pollution-related disease.2 The contamination of Flint's water placed these children at risk for neurological injury, severe behaviour problems, reading disabilities, and decreased educational attainment.

[Correspondence] Lancet Commission on pollution: action plans and human resource development in India

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
The Lancet Commission1 on pollution and health (Feb 3, p 462) is an important and timely assessment of global pollution and its health effects. It has highlighted the plight of vulnerable populations in low-income and middle-income countries and showed that about 92% of pollution-associated mortality occurs in these countries. The Commission makes it clear that the adverse health effects caused by pollution are preventable and suggests potential preventive measures and action plans. Bold, open-minded, and inclusive action plans at various levels, including political, are necessary for successful implementation of the strategies proposed in the Commission.

[Correspondence] Accelerating the evidence for new classes of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
The comment by Gerry F Killeen and Hilary Ranson (April 21, p 1551),1 on our trial of long-lasting synergist piperonyl butoxide and pyrethroid-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for control of insecticide-resistant malaria mosquitoes (April 21, p 1577),2 although summarising accurately the trial's findings, was less a commentary on its implications for future malaria control than a critique on the slow rate of progress in getting piperonyl butoxide synergist and other new long-lasting insecticidal nets implemented to scale.

[Articles] Benefits and harms of screening men for abdominal aortic aneurysm in Sweden: a registry-based cohort study

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
AAA screening in Sweden did not contribute substantially to the large observed reductions in AAA mortality. The reductions were mostly caused by other factors, probably reduced smoking. The small benefit and substantially less favourable benefit-to-harm balance call the continued justification of the intervention into question.

[Clinical Picture] Concentric circles in left atrium

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
A 51-year-old woman, who had a history of rheumatic heart disease, was admitted to hospital with a recent onset of reduced level of consciousness and right-sided weakness. Initial neurological examination was consistent with a right-sided hemiplegia. A CT scan of her head confirmed infarction of the left basal ganglia and left paraventricular regions of the brain. Examination of her cardiovascular system found her heart to be in atrial fibrillation with a ventricular rate of 110 beats per min. A diastolic murmur was heard on auscultation at the apex.

[Seminar] Type 1 diabetes

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by insulin deficiency and resultant hyperglycaemia. Knowledge of type 1 diabetes has rapidly increased over the past 25 years, resulting in a broad understanding about many aspects of the disease, including its genetics, epidemiology, immune and β-cell phenotypes, and disease burden. Interventions to preserve β cells have been tested, and several methods to improve clinical disease management have been assessed. However, wide gaps still exist in our understanding of type 1 diabetes and our ability to standardise clinical care and decrease disease-associated complications and burden.

[Review] Genomic insights into the causes of type 2 diabetes

The Lancet - Sa, 16/06/2018 - 00:00
Genome-wide association studies have implicated around 250 genomic regions in predisposition to type 2 diabetes, with evidence for causal variants and genes emerging for several of these regions. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms, including the interplay between β-cell failure, insulin sensitivity, appetite regulation, and adipose storage has been facilitated by the integration of multidimensional data for diabetes-related intermediate phenotypes, detailed genomic annotations, functional experiments, and now multiomic molecular features.

Nano-infused black goo is incredibly stretchy and self-repairs

New Scientist - Ve, 15/06/2018 - 21:00
An accordion-shaped nanomaterial is the key ingredient in a sticky, self-healing gel that might one day help people with paralysis to communicate

How can you tell if a video is a deepfake? Just look at the eyes

New Scientist - Ve, 15/06/2018 - 16:50
Fake videos created by AI are often so good it’s hard to tell if they are real or not, so a new fakery fighting tool tracks eyes to identify the real deal

Mediterranean diet is still good for you but only if you’re rich

New Scientist - Ve, 15/06/2018 - 15:28
A landmark study that touted the benefits of the Mediterranean diet has been retracted, but eating more fresh fish and veg is still good for you, if you can afford it
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