Riviste scientifiche

Bad news: Carbon emissions have suddenly started rising again

New Scientist - Lu, 13/11/2017 - 09:30
Emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel are on the rise again. We desperately need more action to stop climate change, and that means putting a price on carbon

Facebook can make your profile pic wink and scowl

New Scientist - Do, 12/11/2017 - 13:00
Like portraits and pictures in Harry Potter, your Facebook image will soon react to visitors’ actions with happiness, sadness, or anger

Daytime injuries heal twice as fast as wounds sustained at night

New Scientist - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 13:00
Burn injuries sustained during the day take an average of 11 days less to heal than night-time burns

[Editorial] Eliminating viral hepatitis: time to match visions with action

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Viral hepatitis caused an estimated 1·4 million deaths in 2015—similar to tuberculosis and more than either HIV or malaria, yet historically these diseases have received insufficient attention from donors and policy makers. In May, 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted the Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis, 2016–20, which aims to eliminate viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030. The strategy set global targets to reduce new viral hepatitis infections by 90% and to reduce deaths due to viral hepatitis by 65%, focusing mainly on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are responsible for most of the global burden.

[Editorial] Eliminating viral hepatitis: time to match visions with action

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Viral hepatitis caused an estimated 1·4 million deaths in 2015—similar to tuberculosis and more than either HIV or malaria, yet historically these diseases have received insufficient attention from donors and policy makers. In May, 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted the Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis, 2016–20, which aims to eliminate viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030. The strategy set global targets to reduce new viral hepatitis infections by 90% and to reduce deaths due to viral hepatitis by 65%, focusing mainly on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are responsible for most of the global burden.

[Editorial] The case for action on childhood pneumonia

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Pneumonia kills almost 1 million children each year, and more than 80% of these deaths are children under 2 years of age. While not solely a disease of developing countries—it is the leading cause of child hospitalisation in the USA—it disproportionately affects children living with poverty or malnourishment who are the most vulnerable to infection. A key defence is immunisation, but over 25 million children under 2 years were not immunised with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2016. Available vaccines are produced by just two manufacturers and priced out of the reach of many countries, even with assistance from Gavi, which has immunised 109 million children against pneumococcal disease as of last year.

[Editorial] The case for action on childhood pneumonia

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Pneumonia kills almost 1 million children each year, and more than 80% of these deaths are children under 2 years of age. While not solely a disease of developing countries—it is the leading cause of child hospitalisation in the USA—it disproportionately affects children living with poverty or malnourishment who are the most vulnerable to infection. A key defence is immunisation, but over 25 million children under 2 years were not immunised with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2016. Available vaccines are produced by just two manufacturers and priced out of the reach of many countries, even with assistance from Gavi, which has immunised 109 million children against pneumococcal disease as of last year.

[Editorial] Support for a publicly funded health system in the USA

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
On Nov 8, a high-level panel—Health for All: #Walktogether—was held in New York City, NY, USA. It brought together two Elders—former Secretary General of the UN Ban Ki-moon and former Director General of WHO Gro Harlem Brundtland—and local health activists and politicians to discuss the need for publicly funded health systems in order for governments to deliver universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030. This event was held as part of a global tour that marks the tenth anniversary of the founding of The Elders, an independent group that provides leadership on the most pressing issues facing humanity.

[Comment] Hidden conflicts of interest in continuing medical education

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Continuing medical education (CME) is an integral part of postgraduate training for medical professionals in the USA and globally. CME enables physicians to maintain and gain knowledge and skills that ensure optimal medical care and outcomes for patients. For these reasons CME is a required component of licensure in the USA.1,2 Since most physicians regularly complete CME hours, conflicts of interest that could introduce bias into CME must be avoided to prevent potentially detrimental downstream effects on patient care.

[Comment] Offline: Planetary health's next frontier—biodiversity

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Medicine's inspiring power is the moral importance it attaches to human life. The commitment of health workers to the protection and strengthening of humanity is a bulwark against violence, repression, and abuse. It is in their defence of life and human flourishing that medicine and medical science find their political and social force. But the priority medicine gives to being human is also its great conceit—and flaw. What has become increasingly clear is that, as Emmett Duffy and his colleagues put it in Nature earlier this year, “Human well-being depends strongly on the interacting web of living species, so much so that we take this for granted.” If we are concerned about human health, we should also be concerned about the health of the biosphere that we inhabit.

[World Report] Trump administration begins to confront the opioid crisis

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
As the Presidential Commission releases its recommendations, Trump moves closer to defining his policies against the opioid epidemic. Susan Jaffe, The Lancet Washington correspondent, reports.

[Perspectives] The digitised clinical trial

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Nicole is a 46-year-old mother of two who works for her local bank. She has an autoimmune condition that has been difficult to control. She was excited to see a video on her patient community website about a research programme for a new therapeutic intervention. After absorbing the details of the study, being informed of its risks and benefits, confirming her qualifications, and being given the opportunity to ask any questions, Nicole completed the smartphone consent. She then began a rigorous study regimen: daily medication, weekly monitoring of vital signs, and continuous tracking of her activity and quality of sleep.

[Perspectives] Flight from despair

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
One out of every 113 people in the world is either an asylum seeker, a refugee, or internally displaced, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The war in Syria, now in its sixth year, is a major driver of these numbers and the acute distress of those immediately affected by the conflict—an estimated 6·5 million internally displaced, 5 million Syrian refugees in host countries in the region, and about 1 million seeking refuge in Europe and elsewhere. Yet in the past 5 years millions of other people have also been leaving home to improve their chances of survival, driving the total numbers beyond the 50 million found after World War 2 in Europe (long considered the historical high mark) to more than 65 million in 2017.

[Obituary] Johannes Joseph van Rood

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Pioneering immunogeneticist. He was born in Scheveningen, the Netherlands, on April 7, 1926, and died of vascular disease in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, on July 21, 2017, aged 91 years.

[Correspondence] Patients are denied care because of corruption in Romania

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
On Sept 1, 2017, the prosecutors of the Romanian National Anticorruption Directorate detained 14 people on charges of corruption, with the president of the National Health Insurance House (NHIH), the head of the NHIH's Antifraud Department, and the director of the Bucharest Health Insurance House among them.1 They are accused of having orchestrated reimbursement of home care services for fictional patients to the detriment of real patients on waiting lists, who had been denied services. Initial estimates indicate damage of at least €3 million to the NHIH budget between January, 2016, and August, 2017.

[Correspondence] Ocular gene therapy for neovascular AMD: a new era?

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
We read with great interest the study by Jeffrey S Heier and colleagues (July 1, p 50)1 on the beneficial effects of an intravitreal injection of AAV2-sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Despite the original findings, there are methodological concerns that need to be further addressed.

[Correspondence] Ocular gene therapy for neovascular AMD: a new era? – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
Irina Chatziralli and Theodoros Sergentanis note that after intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01, 40% of patients in cohorts 4 and 5 received rescue anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections.1 They ask for the criteria and implications of rescue injections. They also ask why the presence of subretinal fibrosis was not required in cohort 5.

[Correspondence] Intravitreal aflibercept for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
We congratulate Sobha Sivaprasad and colleagues (June 3, p 2193)1 for their interesting paper on the clinical efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus panretinal laser photocoagulation for best corrected visual acuity in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (the CLARITY study). The authors concluded that aflibercept was non-inferior and superior to panretinal laser photocoagulation in both the modified intention-to-treat population and the per-protocol population. These findings provide new, provocative data that should be taken into consideration when formulating a treatment management plan for individuals with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

[Correspondence] Intravitreal aflibercept for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
We applaud the CLARITY study group for their efforts.1 We raise three issues aimed at a deeper understanding of the published data and its implications.

[Correspondence] Intravitreal aflibercept for proliferative diabetic retinopathy – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 11/11/2017 - 00:00
We would like to thank the authors for their comments on our study report and address the issues they have raised.1
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