Riviste scientifiche

How the dark web’s gunrunners covertly ship US weapons to Europe

New Scientist - Gi, 20/07/2017 - 02:01
Lax gun laws make the US the number one distributor of weapons on the dark web, with Europe the most profitable destination

Plastics made fireproof thanks to mother-of-pearl mimic

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 21:00
A method for quickly coating objects in a thin, environmentally safe mother-of-pearl-like film could protect food or electronics from the elements

Bioinspired tube robot can sneak round corners and turn on taps

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 21:00
It sounds nightmarish, but a robot that "grows" like a plant at speeds of up to 35 kilometres per hour could be surprisingly useful

Robot physical therapist helps people walk again after a stroke

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 21:00
A robotic harness controlled by a neural network can adjust a person’s balance and muscle activity to help them walk normally after a spinal injury or stroke

First dogs may have been extremely sociable wolves

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 21:00
Wolves and dogs that are friendliest to people carry mutations in genes with links to sociability, backing the idea that this was key in dog domestication

How the opioid crisis may have saved US healthcare

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 20:28
Though Republicans in the US hold both Congress and the White House, Obamacare will not be repealed, meaning continued healthcare for millions of Americans

First Australians may have arrived much earlier than we thought

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 20:00
Stone axes and the remains of fireplaces found in northern Australia appear to date to 65,000 years ago, adding 15,000 years to Australia's human prehistory

Earth’s underwater dunes help explain Venus’s weird surface

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 19:36
Some of the properties of wind and dust on Venus may be similar to those of water and sediment at the bottom of our oceans

The death of smoking: how tobacco will be eradicated for good

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 19:00
Smoking rates have been slowly falling in Western countries for decades. Soon, the habit could be wiped out, without even having to ban it

We could build a galactic internet but it may take 300,000 years

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 18:49
By using the timing of planets’ orbits around their stars, all the advanced civilizations that may exist in the Milky Way could communicate

Buzz of drones is more annoying than any other kind of vehicle

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 17:20
NASA study suggests that the noise from delivery drones will be more irritating than any other delivery method, regardless of how quietly they fly

Why fast birds, fish and animals are never too small or big

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 17:00
An animal’s maximum speed is based on how fast it can accelerate, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest

What is chemsex and why is the UK government worried about it?

New Scientist - Me, 19/07/2017 - 13:50
The UK government wants to address chemsex, which usually involves drugs like miaow miaow or GHB. Clare Wilson explains the health concerns around the trend

Trauma care: Finding a better way

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 23:00

by Hasan B. Alam

In a Perspective, Hasan Alam discusses emerging treatment approaches in trauma care.

Prescription medicine use by pedestrians and the risk of injurious road traffic crashes: A case-crossover study

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 23:00

by Mélanie Née, Marta Avalos, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Louis-Rachid Salmi, Annie Fourrier-Réglat, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde, Ludivine Orriols

Background

While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian.

Methods and findings

Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control. To perform multivariable analysis and limit false-positive results, we implemented a bootstrap version of Lasso. To avoid the effect of unmeasured time-varying factors, we varied the length of the washout period from 30 to 119 days before the crash. The matching procedure led to the inclusion of 16,458 pedestrians involved in an injurious road traffic crash from 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2011. We found 48 medicine classes with a positive association with the risk of crash, with median odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 2.98. Among these, benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs were among the 10 medicines most consumed by the 16,458 pedestrians. Study limitations included slight overrepresentation of pedestrians injured in more severe crashes, lack of information about self-medication and the use of over-the-counter drugs, and lack of data on amount of walking.

Conclusions

Therapeutic classes already identified as impacting the ability to drive, such as benzodiazepines and antihistamines, are also associated with an increased risk of pedestrians being involved in a road traffic crash. This study on pedestrians highlights the necessity of improving awareness of the effect of these medicines on this category of road user.

Research questions in pre-hospital trauma care

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 23:00

by David J. Lockey

Noting that a variety of pre-hospital interventions can now be applied to treat traumatic injury, David J Lockey calls for research to determine which of these actually improve survival and reduce morbidity.

Prehospital immune responses and development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following traumatic injury: A prospective cohort study

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 23:00

by Jon Hazeldine, David N. Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R. B. Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J. Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M. Lord

Background

Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).

Methods and findings

The immune and inflammatory response to trauma was analysed in 89 adult trauma patients (mean age 41 years, range 18–90 years, 75 males) with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 24 (range 9–66), from whom blood samples were acquired within 1 hour of injury (mean time to sample 42 minutes, range 17–60 minutes). Within minutes of trauma, a comprehensive leukocytosis, elevated serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and evidence of innate cell activation that included neutrophil extracellular trap generation and elevated surface expression of toll-like receptor 2 and CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, were observed. Features consistent with immune compromise were also detected, notably elevated numbers of immune suppressive CD16BRIGHT CD62LDIM neutrophils (82.07 x 106/l ± 18.94 control versus 1,092 x 106/l ± 165 trauma, p < 0.0005) and CD14+HLA-DRlow/− monocytes (34.96 x 106/l ± 4.48 control versus 95.72 x 106/l ± 8.0 trauma, p < 0.05) and reduced leukocyte cytokine secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Exploratory analysis via binary logistic regression found a potential association between absolute natural killer T (NKT) cell numbers and the subsequent development of MODS. Study limitations include the relatively small sample size and the absence of data relating to adaptive immune cell function.

Conclusions

Our study highlighted the dynamic and complex nature of the immune response to trauma, with immune alterations consistent with both activation and suppression evident within 1 hour of injury. The relationship of these changes, especially in NKT cell numbers, to patient outcomes such as MODS warrants further investigation.

Rising life expectancy in England has slowed since recession

New Scientist - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 19:30
The pace of improving life expectancies has halved in England since the global recession began. Austerity cuts to healthcare and social care may be to blame

Tanzanian volcano blast could destroy ancient hominin footprints

New Scientist - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 18:33
If Ol Doinyo Lengai erupts, iconic prints at Laetoli and another set at Engare Sero are at risk

Never-before-seen photos of leopard cub being raised by a lion

New Scientist - Ma, 18/07/2017 - 18:00
Should the leopard cub survive its unusual upbringing, would it behave more like a lion or a leopard?
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