Riviste scientifiche

[Correspondence] Rifampicin in treating S aureus bacteraemia – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
As Siegbert Reig and colleagues state in their letter, the ARREST trial found that in adults with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, 14 days of adjunctive rifampicin had no significant effect on the composite primary endpoint of death or microbiologically-confirmed failure or recurrence after 12 weeks.1 However, contrary to their subsequent statements, rifampicin had no effect on treatment failure, only on recurrence, and the significant association between rifampicin and antibiotic-modifying adverse events and drug interactions was in the intention-to-treat population, not in a subgroup.

[Correspondence] Academic freedom needs active support

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
In her World Report, Sharmila Devi (April 28, p 1657)1 reported on increased stifling of human rights after the decision to hold presidential elections in Turkey. The concurrent suppression of academic freedom warrants specific mention. Since July, 2016, 6081 academics have been dismissed from their positions and from civic duty with statutory decrees, with an accompanying cancellation of their passports.2 Of the 15 universities that were shut down with statutory decree in July, 2016, some remain entirely shut down, with foreign students and employees deported or awaiting deportation under custody; others are being re-opened as state universities with new names, administration, academic staff, and student bodies.

[Articles] Oral steroids for resolution of otitis media with effusion in children (OSTRICH): a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomised trial

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Otitis media with effusion in children with documented hearing loss and attributable symptoms for at least 3 months has a high rate of spontaneous resolution. A short course of oral prednisolone is not an effective treatment for most children aged 2–8 years with persistent otitis media with effusion, but is well tolerated. One in 14 children might achieve improved hearing but not quality of life. Discussions about watchful waiting and other interventions will be supported by this evidence.

[Clinical Picture] Erythema multiforme major with swollen lips and crusted erosions

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
A 41-year-old woman presented to our clinic because of the sudden appearance of erosions on and swelling of her lips. On clinical examination, diffuse erythema of the labial mucosae with small vesicles and crusted erosions on both the superior and inferior vermillion borders were noted (figure). Further inspection of her mouth showed erythema and erosions on the inner cheek and mild focal desquamated gingivitis. The patient was otherwise healthy, with good oral hygiene. No other lesions were seen on the rest of her body.

The galaxy is full of ‘water world’ exoplanets where life could evolve

New Scientist - Ve, 17/08/2018 - 23:45
Analysis of data from 4000 exoplanets reveals that around a third are rich in water – and many have more water than Earth

Watch 4D-printed ceramics form elaborate, shape-shifting structures

New Scientist - Ve, 17/08/2018 - 21:00
A new technique for printing ceramics in 4D could be used to make strong, complex parts for rockets and mobile phones

This AI will draw whatever you want – but it’s utterly terrible

New Scientist - Ve, 17/08/2018 - 18:43
Just type in a few words, and this AI will try to draw them. It’s good at textures and colours, but the details can get a bit mixed up

Genoa bridge collapse – what went wrong and are other bridges at risk?

New Scientist - Ve, 17/08/2018 - 14:18
A large portion of motorway bridge in Genoa, Italy has collapsed killing 38 people. Here’s what we know so far about what went wrong

Eating a low-carb diet may shorten your life – unless you go vegan too

New Scientist - Ve, 17/08/2018 - 01:30
People following low-carb diets have been found to have a higher risk of mortality, except when people shun animal fats and protein too

Oldest galaxies in the universe discovered right on our doorstep

New Scientist - Ve, 17/08/2018 - 00:00
Astronomers have previously looked for ancient galaxies by peering into the deep reaches of the universe, but it turns out they were right here all the time

Correction: A collaborative translational research framework for evaluating and implementing the appropriate use of human genome sequencing to improve health

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 23:00

by Muin J. Khoury, W. Gregory Feero, David A. Chambers, Lawrence C. Brody, Nazneen Aziz, Robert C. Green, A. Cecile J. W. Janssens, Michael F. Murray, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Joni L. Rutter, Sheri D. Schully, Deborah M. Winn, George A. Mensah

Family history–based colorectal cancer screening in Australia: A modelling study of the costs, benefits, and harms of different participation scenarios

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 23:00

by Mary Dillon, Louisa Flander, Daniel D. Buchanan, Finlay A. Macrae, Jon D. Emery, Ingrid M. Winship, Alex Boussioutas, Graham G. Giles, John L. Hopper, Mark A. Jenkins, Driss Ait Ouakrim

Background

The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) was introduced in 2006. When fully implemented, the programme will invite people aged 50 to 74 to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) every 2 years.

Methods and findings

To investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening occurring outside of the NBCSP, we classified participants (n = 2,480) in the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) into 3 risk categories (average, moderately increased, and potentially high) based on CRC family history and assessed their screening practices according to national guidelines. We developed a microsimulation to compare hypothetical screening scenarios (70% and 100% uptake) to current participation levels (baseline) and evaluated clinical outcomes and cost for each risk category. The 2 main limitations of this study are as follows: first, the fact that our cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a third-party payer perspective, which does not include indirect costs and results in overestimated cost-effectiveness ratios, and second, that our natural history model of CRC does not include polyp sojourn time, which determines the rate of cancerous transformation.Screening uptake was low across all family history risk categories (64%–56% reported no screening). For participants at average risk, 18% reported overscreening, while 37% of those in the highest risk categories screened according to guidelines. Higher screening levels would substantially reduce CRC mortality across all risk categories (95 to 305 fewer deaths per 100,000 persons in the 70% scenario versus baseline). For those at average risk, a fully implemented NBCSP represented the most cost-effective approach to prevent CRC deaths (AUS$13,000–16,000 per quality-adjusted life year [QALY]). For those at moderately increased risk, higher adherence to recommended screening was also highly cost-effective (AUS$19,000–24,000 per QALY).

Conclusion

Investing in public health strategies to increase adherence to appropriate CRC screening will save lives and deliver high value for money.

Future robot swarms should copy lazy ants who let others do the work

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 21:00
The optimum strategy for tunnelling ants is to leave all of the digging to just a few workers. Swarms of robots could use similar techniques for clearing rubble

Including population control in climate policy risks human tragedy

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 21:00
Making population issues part of the world's efforts to avert climate change could cause human rights abuses including forced sterilisation, says Ian Angus

The male fish who eat their eggs because they want better babies

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 18:00
When male barred-chin blenny fish are unimpressed by their latest batch of offspring, they often eat them so they can start a new family as soon as possible

New mega-journal will raise the profile of African science

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 17:15
A new journal for Africa's scientific researchers is about to makes its debut. It could be a game changer for the continent, says Curtis Abraham

Corals on old North Sea oil rigs could help natural reefs recover

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 16:00
Not only are deep-sea coral ecosystems thriving on oil and gas rigs in the North Sea, their larvae may be helping repopulate damaged natural reefs

Exposure to insecticide DDT linked to having a child with autism

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 16:00
Although DDT has been banned for decades in many countries, exposure to its breakdown products may be influencing whether mothers have autistic babies

Replacing your boss with a cruel robot could make you concentrate more

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 14:43
A mean robot watching over you increases your focus on the most important parts of a task more than a friendly robot or even no robot at all

Why the US is worried a Russian satellite might be a space weapon

New Scientist - Gi, 16/08/2018 - 13:55
A Russian satellite has been getting closer to Earth without a clear reason and US officials are concerned that it could be a space weapon
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