Riviste scientifiche

Our common ancestor with chimps may be from Europe, not Africa

New Scientist - Lu, 22/05/2017 - 21:00
The last common ancestor of chimps and humans was an eastern European, claims team that analysed fossils of a 7-million-year-old ape from Bulgaria and Greece

Flushing fallopian tubes with poppy seed oil boosts fertility

New Scientist - Lu, 22/05/2017 - 19:00
A 100-year-old treatment in which women have their fallopian tubes flushed with oil makes them more likely to get pregnant without IVF treatments

Bacteria engineered to produce living, full-colour photographs

New Scientist - Lu, 22/05/2017 - 18:00
Gut bugs have been modified to turn red, green or blue when bathed in light of the corresponding colour so they create bacterial photocopies

Citizens give up data in blockchain project to improve cities

New Scientist - Lu, 22/05/2017 - 15:57
The DECODE project will give residents of Barcelona and Amsterdam more control over how their personal data is harnessed by local government and businesses

AI can doctor videos to put words in the mouths of speakers

New Scientist - Lu, 22/05/2017 - 14:00
Realistically faked video will soon be a single click away thanks to new technology that might render video evidence meaningless in court

Weak defences leave us wide open to ransom attacks

New Scientist - Lu, 22/05/2017 - 12:00
Last week’s cyberattacks were small beer. The UK government must invest in NHS upgrades before a bigger threat brings it to its knees

[Editorial] WHO: Director-General campaign closes amid anxiety and hope

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
The current race to replace Margaret Chan, outgoing Director-General of WHO, has been a different kind of contest. The unprecedented level of transparency and accountability in the election campaign is to be welcomed—voting by member states and not only by the agency's executive board, publication and scrutiny of candidate manifestos, and public debates. But will the final decision making, to take place next week at the World Health Assembly in Geneva, also be different? The vote remains a secret ballot, member states can pledge their support to one candidate but vote for another, and, in the end, the choice of WHO's next leader, still the world's top international health post, will be as political as ever.

[Editorial] Thyroid cancer screening

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
Whether screening for a disease is beneficial or not is widely debated. Last week, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against screening for thyroid cancer in adults who show no signs or symptoms of the disease, concurring with its 1996 recommendation.

[Editorial] Policy lacking to prevent adverse health for poor UK children

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
In the UK, 4 million children, about one in four, live in poverty, 100 000 more than in the previous year. A report launched on April 11, Poverty and Child Health—commissioned by charities, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, and the Child Poverty Action Group—illustrates paediatricians' concern about the negative impact of child poverty on their health. The report is based on an online survey of over 250 paediatricians across the UK. Two-thirds of the respondents said that poverty and low income contribute very much to the ill health of children they work with, pointing to food insecurity and living in what is described as cold, damp, overcrowded housing, as major contributing factors to health deterioration.

[Comment] Looming threat of Asian tobacco companies to global health

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
The Indonesian Government is considering a ministerial decree that could triple cigarette production by 2020.1 The proposed decree follows unsuccessful bills2 to boost tobacco growing and “farmer prosperity”,3 despite concerns about health and child labour practices.4 If adopted, manufacturers would be required to use at least 80% locally sourced leaf, and a 200% excise tax would be imposed on cigarette imports. The measures follow the takeover of Indonesia's major cigarette manufacturers by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs), which raises the concern that imports will displace domestic production.

[Comment] Maternal mortality in Afghanistan: setting achievable targets

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
In 2002, soon after the NATO-led overthrow of the Taliban regime, a survey of maternal mortality in Afghanistan was done, commissioned by the Afghan Ministry of Public Health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and UNICEF. The results were published in The Lancet in 2005 and estimated the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to be 1600 deaths per 100 000 livebirths (95% CI 1100–2000),1,2 among the highest in the world and consistent with the UN estimates.1 In the most remote rural district, Ragh, in mountainous Badakhshan Province, the estimate was 6507 per 100 000 livebirths,1 among the highest MMRs recorded globally.

[Comment] Computer-assisted diagnosis for skin cancer: have we been outsmarted?

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in fair-skinned populations, with melanoma incidence the highest in New Zealand and Australia (50 and 48 per 100 000 population, respectively) and projected to increase in the UK (from 17 to 36 per 100 000 population) and in the USA (from 29 to 32 per 100 000 population) between 2007–11 and 2022–26.1 Non-melanoma skin cancer is up to 20 times more common than melanoma worldwide.2 For every melanoma diagnosed, there are from three to 40 benign lesions biopsied; the proportion of biopsied lesions that are benign is generally greater in primary care than in specialist settings.

[Comment] Arab youth respond to the Lancet Commission on adolescent health and wellbeing

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
The Lancet Commission on adolescent health and wellbeing1 is a rich compendium of evidence on adolescent health globally, and highlights the importance of youth engagement. Such engagement is vital in the Arab region where youth (15–29 years) comprise about 30% of the population.2 Young people in this region are exposed to structural violence and conflict that affect every aspect of their lives2—a situation that exacerbates the uncertainties of an already tumultuous life stage. Yet young people in the region have used their voices constructively to push for equity and justice.

[Comment] Offline: Israel and Palestine—a joint search for the truth

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
In July, 2014, amid the tragedy of a war between Israel and Hamas-controlled Gaza—a conflict in which thousands of rockets and missiles were fired, leaving hundreds of children and women dead—The Lancet published a letter by Paola Manduca and colleagues. We had been working with Palestinian health professionals since 2007 to help advance their health and health care through research collaboration. The intention of publishing the letter from Manduca et al was to signal a cry of anguish for a people we had come to know well.

[Special Report] Famine in South Sudan

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
Famine affects over 100 000 individuals in a country struggling through a violent civil war, where aid workers risk their lives to provide support, hindered by denial of access. Sharmila Devi reports.

[Perspectives] Epilepsy

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
Whoever wrote the Hippocratic treatise On the Sacred Disease—almost certainly not the historical Hippocrates— had an eye for an ironic title. This short text is a manifesto for the secular, materialistic medicine we associate with the Hippocratics, and a blistering attack on the claims of ancient Greek folk healers and “temple medicine”. The sacred disease—a condition characterised by fits, foaming lips, and loss of consciousness—was not, the author argued, caused by a demon or a heavenly thunderbolt, but was the result of a blockage in the flow of chilly phlegm around the body.

[Perspectives] Instinct versus science

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
The Essex Serpent is Sarah Perry's second novel and it is doing very well indeed. A plot summary sounds both worthy and complicated, but the reason for its success is plain within a few pages: it is great fun. Perry is playing with and rejoicing in her neo-Victorian Gothic, teasing the reader with a monster that can't really (can it?) be creeping out of the dark water to terrorise an Essex village where the inhabitants are still open to medieval ideas about sin and supernatural beings while down-from-London visitors have digested Charles Darwin and are moving towards the ideas of Sigmund Freud.

[Perspectives] Brain Diaries: two hemispheres of interest

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
“Understanding the brain and its diseases is one of the key challenges of the 21st century”, said Professor of Clinical Neurology Christopher Kennard at the launch of Oxford University Museum of Natural History's Brain Diaries. “I've said that is like climbing Everest, but I don't even think we've got to base camp”, Kennard explained, citing the growing “problem of dementia: the longer we live, the more likely we are to develop Alzheimer's”. Incorporating research from more than 50 neuroscientists, Brain Diaries explores the passage of a healthy brain from conception to old age.

[Perspectives] Julie Moore: NHS leader who walks the wards

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
When asked what makes a good manager in the UK's National Health Service (NHS), it's not the obvious core skills—leadership, willingness to delegate, critical thinking—that Dame Julie Moore chooses to emphasise. Moore, Chief Executive of University Hospitals Birmingham (USB) NHS Foundation Trust, is eager to talk of values: in essence, the determination to make things better for patients. Indeed the words “values” and “patient care” form a kind of leitmotif to her discourse; she returns to them time and time again.

[Perspectives] John Elliotson, Thomas Wakley, and the mesmerism feud

The Lancet - Sa, 20/05/2017 - 00:00
From the first edition of The Lancet in 1823, the journal's founder and editor Thomas Wakley vowed to expose and denounce quackery. In his first leading article—an innovation borrowed from the radical journalist William Cobbett—Wakley pledged that he would seek to end “mystery and concealment” in medicine in order to “detect and expose the impositions of ignorant practitioners”. This, however, was rather easier said than done in the dimly lit world of early 19th-century science.
Condividi contenuti