Riviste scientifiche

[Editorial] The wrong kind of enforcement in Bangladesh

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Following an incident in Bangladesh on July 29, in which two students were hit by a speeding bus and killed, protests were launched in Dhaka against the current state of road safety in the country. The spontaneous direct action involved high-school and college-age students standing in the roads of Dhaka, directing traffic and policing behaviour.

[Editorial] Catholic Church v women's rights in Argentina

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
In disappointing news last week, senators in Argentina voted against legislation to allow elective abortion up to 14 weeks of pregnancy. Public support and the passing of the bill in a lower congressional body had brought the right to choose the farthest in the country's legislative history, only to fall short on Aug 8.

[Editorial] Zika-associated health and development problems in children

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities, with further possible adverse developmental outcomes later in life. Last week, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the first and largest study to assess health and development problems in children aged 1 year or older in Puerto Rico and other US territories who were born to mothers with laboratory-confirmed or possible Zika infection during pregnancy and had received some follow-up care.

[Comment] Helping children with hearing loss from otitis media with effusion

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Otitis media with effusion occurs during viral upper respiratory tract infections in around two-thirds of infants and young children because their Eustachian tube anatomy and function do not provide adequate ventilation and drainage of natural mucus production during a cold until the age of around 5 years. Children are also much more prone to develop a middle ear infection during an upper respiratory tract viral infection. Even with the introduction and widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, acute otitis media following an upper respiratory tract viral infection remains common in childhood.

[Comment] 50 years of oral rehydration therapy: the solution is still simple

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
50 years ago, the first study showing that an oral solution of glucose and electrolytes was effective for replacing water and electrolyte losses in cholera was published in The Lancet.1 The 4·6 million annual deaths from diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years estimated in 19802 has fallen to under 500 000 in 2018,3 despite a 70% increase in the world's population. Although several factors contributed to this reduction, as of 2007 it was estimated that oral rehydration therapy (ORT) alone had prevented 54 million diarrhoeal deaths.

[Comment] Initiation of Global Burden of Animal Diseases Programme

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
A consistent and comparable description of animal diseases, the risk factors associated with them, and the effectiveness of intervention strategies to mitigate these diseases are important for decision making and planning. The economic impact of a pathogen or animal disease is a function of disease frequency, infection intensity, the effect of the disease on mortality and productivity in animals and its effects on human health, and efforts to respond to the disease.1 All of these factors can vary over time between species and the contexts in which people and animals live, and need to be measured to understand the patterns of impact at local, national, and global levels.

[Comment] Advancing haematological research and clinical practice: a call for papers for ASH 2018

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Haematologists are breaking new ground to advance patient care: recent advances include broadening therapeutic options for blood cell disorders, personalising immune cells to combat cancer, and addressing challenges in the management of toxicities stemming from the rapidly changing landscape in immunotherapy. Such milestones would not be possible to establish without clinicians and research scientists around the globe working together to do innovative studies that aim to transform clinical practice.

[World Report] Reconstructing Iraq

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
At a time of competing priorities, Iraq provides a striking example of how humanitarian aid must continue its support to the country after fighting has subsided. Sharmila Devi reports.

[World Report] Scientific evidence against HIV criminalisation

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
An expert consensus statement draws attention to the thousands of HIV-related prosecutions and convictions worldwide. Becky McCall reports.

[Perspectives] Cerebral palsy

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Thanks to my insightful and industrious academic colleagues, the challenge of writing this column usually lies in trying to do justice to a heap of monographs and articles in a few hundred words. Compared with cholera, cancer, or hysteria, though, cerebral palsy has provoked little historical scholarship—a curious omission at a time when the recovery of lost voices and experiences lies at the heart of historiographical practice. Even after a century and more of research and debate, in the words of the neurologists Anamarija Kavčič and David B Vodušek, “it is still easier to explain what cerebral palsy is not”.

[Perspectives] John Strang: global leader in tackling addiction

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
In an interview for BBC Newsnight in 1997, John Strang, the then newly appointed Director of the National Addiction Centre at King's College London, UK, first spoke publicly about “take-home naloxone” for opiate users. This was a major step in reducing deaths from heroin overdose, and Strang continued to fight for the widespread uptake of naloxone for 20 years, alongside advancing the research agenda in addiction medicine. Reflecting today, Strang says “It's taken two decades for this life-saving approach (take-home naloxone) to make a real global impact.

[Perspectives] Dorothea Lange's lens on humanity

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Donald Trump has a loud voice, no shame, and precious little evidence of humanity. He has distorted language and lies endlessly. He appears to get away with it. The stately New York Times is disapproving and The Washington Post has tracked his lies at about six per day for the first 500 days of his presidency, but the President's view of the world, false as it may be, dominates the airwaves. The few times that his presidency has been rocked, even a little, visual images have played a part. His lies about the crowd at his inaugural were shown to be nonsense by the juxtaposition of two photographs, the large crowd at President Barack Obama's inaugural and the comparatively sparse crowd at his own.

[Perspectives] The aftermath of addiction

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
“And did you get/what you wanted from this life, even so…And what did you want?/To call myself beloved, to feel myself/beloved upon the earth.” These words of Raymond Carver's are written on his gravestone. At the end of The Recovering: Intoxication and Its Aftermath, Leslie Jamison makes her pilgrimage towards it, searching for the metal box kept beside which she knows contains a visitors' book. She chases through it for words of fellow travellers, only to find that it is new, recently replaced and mainly blank.

[Obituary] Patricia Schiller

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
Sex educator and lawyer. Born on Oct 27, 1913, in Brooklyn, NY, USA, she died in Palm Beach, FL, USA, on June 29, 2018, age 104 years.

[Correspondence] Treatment modalities for pregnant women with opioid use disorder

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
In his first year of term, President Trump declared the opioid crisis a national emergency. This declaration allowed state and federal agencies to allot more resources to confront the epidemic by using recommen-dations from the final report of the President's commission on combatting drug addiction and the opioid crisis,1 such as increased treatment capacity and better access to medication-assisted treatment (MAT) programmes. These recommendations are rather vague and could leave the most vulnerable people behind.

[Correspondence] A closer look at SCOOP: screening for fracture prevention

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
The SCOOP trial (Feb 24, p 741)1 provides much-needed high-quality evidence for osteoporosis screening. However, elaboration on two issues by the trial authors would help those considering introducing screening programmes or doing related research.

[Correspondence] A closer look at SCOOP: screening for fracture prevention

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
As part of SCOOP, a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the effect of a screening programme on incident osteoporotic fractures in 12 483 women aged 70–85 years, Lee Shepstone and colleagues1 reported a relative reduction in hip fractures of 28% (hazard ratio 0·72, 95% CI 0·59–0·89) compared with usual care. This decrease in hip fractures is a remarkable result if one considers that the effect is largely diluted by participants not receiving treatment. 1486 (24%) participants in the screening group received at least one prescription versus 982 (16%) of the control group—a difference in received treatment of 8%.

[Correspondence] A closer look at SCOOP: screening for fracture prevention – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
We agree with Mark Bolland and Andrew Grey that the SCOOP trial1 provides much-needed high-quality evidence for screening, but for high fracture risk rather than for osteoporosis. The observation that Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) probabilities in women at high risk of hip fracture in the screening group tended to decrease with the addition of bone mineral density (BMD) is correct but not unexpected. The FRAX tool is calibrated to the epidemiology of hip fractures in whole populations, and because selected subgroups are likely to have health differences not captured by clinical fracture risk factors, this will lead to differences in predicted and observed outcomes within subgroups.

[Correspondence] The global health and equity imperative for safe consumption facilities

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
The first safe consumption facility (SCF) opened its doors in 1986, in Bern, Switzerland, intending to curb drug overdose-related deaths and prevent other drug-related harm in people who inject drugs (PWID).1 Since then, communities who have adopted the SCF approach have seen decreases in HIV incidence, injection-related litter and disorder, and drug overdose.2,3 Use of SCFs is also associated with uptake of treatment for drug use and other recovery assistance services.4

[Correspondence] Rifampicin in treating S aureus bacteraemia

The Lancet - Sa, 18/08/2018 - 00:00
The deduction that severely ill patients benefit from combination therapy might be tempting, but evidence supporting such an intensified treatment approach is controversial. This was once again shown by Guy E Thwaites and colleagues (Feb 17, p 668),1 who are to be commended for completing the ARREST trial, investigating possible benefits of adjunctive rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The trial findings did not show a significant difference between the rifampicin and placebo groups concerning the composite primary endpoint (bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or recurrence or all-cause death at week 12).
Condividi contenuti