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Trump Administration Launches “Winning on Reducing Food Waste” Initiative

Food and Drug Administration - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 23:01
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced the signing of a joint agency formal agreement under the "Winning on Reducing Food Waste" initiative.
Categorie: Istituzioni

Involuntary mental health treatment in the era of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

PLoS Medicine - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 23:00

by Faraaz Mahomed, Michael Ashley Stein, Vikram Patel

Based on interviews with a variety of participants, Vikram Patel and colleagues advocate for philosophical and practical progress toward recognizing decision-making capacity in people with psychosocial disabilities.

Banning straws isn’t enough. We must get serious about climate change

New Scientist - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 18:50
To head off climate disaster requires difficult changes to our lifestyles, says Adam Corner, and politicians must not be afraid to say so

Mantis shrimps punch with the force of a bullet – and now we know how

New Scientist - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 17:00
The mantis shrimp has an incredibly fast punch, and it’s because of a structure called a saddle that stores energy and then releases it like an archer's bow

Your brain is like 100 billion mini-computers all working together

New Scientist - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 17:00
Recording the electrical activity of the fine branches of human neurons has revealed that our brain cells are much more sophisticated than those of other animals

Your genes affect which university you go to but that’s no surprise

New Scientist - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 15:00
A study has found links between a person's genes and university. But intelligence and other complex traits are shaped by both genetics and environment

The BepiColombo spacecraft is about to blast off to Mercury

New Scientist - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 12:15
On 20 October, the BepiColombo spacecraft will begin a 7-year journey to Mercury, where it will orbit and investigate the many mysteries of Mercury

Pregnancy changes how hundreds of genes work in a woman’s body

New Scientist - Gi, 18/10/2018 - 08:00
Genes that alter their expression during healthy pregnancies have been identified for the first time, potentially helping us to predict at-risk pregnancies

Why plans to achieve zero suicides might actually be counterproductive

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 19:00
Health bodies and politicians are aiming for zero suicides, but doctors are warning this ambitious goal is simply unrealistic

World’s oldest fossils might turn out to just be ancient rocks

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 19:00
In 2016, researchers unveiled 3.7-billion-year-old fossils – a reassessment suggests the ‘fossils’ are actually physical scars left when the rocks were deformed

Cosmic supercluster is largest object ever seen in the early universe

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 17:00
A gigantic supercluster of galaxies that existed just two billion years after the big bang could tell us how much dark matter was around in the early universe

2019 Breakthrough Prize winners set to receive share in $22 million

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 16:00
Silicon valley’s Breakthrough Prize reveals the 21 scientists who have been recognized this year for work in drug design, biology, astrophysics, and mathematics

Human placenta stem cells help people recover from hip surgery

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 14:30
The placenta is usually discarded after childbirth but it's a source of mesenchymal stem cells – and they help people regain muscle strength after hip surgery

Gravitational waves from black hole pairs could act like tractor beams

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 13:50
When two black holes orbit one another, they create a swirling vortex of gravitational waves that could trap any nearby objects like a sci-fi tractor beam

Male birds can be good singers or good looking, but not both

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 01:01
The prettier the bird, the worse it sings. A study of over 500 species has revealed that birds evolve to attract mates in one of two ways, and don’t combine them

Special coating gives condoms self-lubricating powers

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 01:01
A polymer coating turns condoms slippery once it comes in contact with body fluids – and it doesn’t dry out

Wildlife photography prize goes to stunning picture of golden monkeys

New Scientist - Me, 17/10/2018 - 00:00
Hellbenders, vampire finches, and mud-daubers were among animals depicted in winning photographs in the 2018 Wildlife Photographer of the Year competition

Cesarean section in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong—A safe choice for women and clinicians?

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 16/10/2018 - 23:00

by Mairead Black, Sohinee Bhattacharya

Mairead Black and Sohinee Bhattacharya discuss research findings on preferences for cesarean delivery in Asian settings and share their Perspective on facilitating woman-centered birth choices in China following the end of the one-child policy.

Prevalence of and reasons for women’s, family members’, and health professionals’ preferences for cesarean section in China: A mixed-methods systematic review

PLoS Medicine - Ma, 16/10/2018 - 23:00

by Qian Long, Carol Kingdon, Fan Yang, Michael Dominic Renecle, Shayesteh Jahanfar, Meghan A. Bohren, Ana Pilar Betran

Background

China has witnessed a rapid increase of cesarean section (CS) rates in recent years. Several non-clinical factors have been cited as contributing to this trend including maternal request and perceived convenience. We aimed to assess preferences for mode of delivery and reasons for preferences for CS in China to inform the development of future interventions to mitigate unnecessary CSs, which are those performed in the absence of medical indications.

Methods and findings

We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review and included longitudinal, cross-sectional, and qualitative studies in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan that investigated preferences for mode of delivery among women and family members and health professionals, and the reasons underlying such preferences. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, POPLINE, PsycINFO, Global Health Library, and one Chinese database (CNKI) using a combination of the key terms ‘caesarean section’, ‘preference’, ‘choice’, ‘knowledge’, ‘attitude’, ‘culture’, ‘non-clinical factors’, and ‘health professionals-patient relations’ between 1990 and 2018 without language restriction. Meta-analysis of quantitative studies and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies were applied. We included 66 studies in this analysis: 47 quantitative and 19 qualitative. For the index pregnancy, the pooled proportions of preference for CS reported by women in longitudinal studies were 14% in early or middle pregnancy (95% CI 12%–17%) and 21% in late pregnancy (95% CI 15%–26%). In cross-sectional studies, the proportions were 17% in early or middle pregnancy (95% CI 14%–20%), 22% in late pregnancy (95% CI 18%–25%), and 30% postpartum (95% CI 19%–40%). Women’s preferences for CS were found to rise as pregnancy progressed (preference change across longitudinal studies: mean difference 7%, 95% CI 1%–13%). One longitudinal study reported that the preference for CS among women’s partners increased from 8% in late pregnancy to 17% in the immediate postpartum period. In addition, 18 quantitative studies revealed that some pregnant women, ranging from 4% to 34%, did not have a straightforward preference for a mode of delivery, even in late pregnancy. The qualitative meta-synthesis found that women’s perceptions of CS as preferable were based on prioritising the baby’s and woman’s health and appeared to intensify through interactions with the health system. Women valued the convenience of bypassing labour because of fear of pain, antagonistic relations with providers, and beliefs of deteriorating quality of care during labour and vaginal birth, fostering the feeling that CS was the safest option. Health professionals’ preference for CS was influenced by financial drivers and malpractice fears. This review has some limitations, including high heterogeneity (despite subgroup and sensitivity analysis) in the quantitative analysis, and the potential for over-reporting of women’s preferences for CS in the qualitative synthesis (due to some included studies only including women who requested CS).

Conclusions

Despite a minority of women expressing a preference for CS, individual, health system, and socio-cultural factors converge, contributing to a high CS rate in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. In order to reduce unnecessary CSs, interventions need to address all these non-clinical factors and concerns.

Systematic review registry

Prospero CRD42016036596.

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